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新托福听力评分标准加部分题型汇总

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发表于 2009-5-30 10:45:37 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 newfledged 于 2012-3-17 20:27 编辑

潜水了很久,最近冒泡的人不多阿~~论坛里说的秦苏珊的写作大赛有筒子们参加没?什么情况阿??
我最近闲来无事,给大家总结了一些托福听力方面的东东,希望能对大伙儿有所帮助~~
首先奉上的是托福听力评分标准(IBT听力评分标准是按正确题目个数给分的):
IBT听力评分标准 正确题目个数 得分 正确题目个数 得分 正确题目个数 得分
  34 30 9 3 21 15
  33 29 8 3 20 14
  32 27 7 2 19 13
  31 26 6 2 18 11
  30 25 5 1 17 9
  29 24 4 0 16 8
  28 23 3 0 15 8
  27 22 2 0 14 7
  26 21 1 0 13 6
  25 19 0 0 12 5
  24 17 22 15 11 4
  23 16 10 4
然后是归纳题解析~~
归纳题一般只出现在演讲(lectures)部分;而且,不同于其他题型的是,每道归纳题所占分值有可能超过1分。也有可能得到部分得分(partial credit)。比如,在4个选项中,勾对了3个,可得1分,勾对2个或以下得零分。归纳题往往采用表格的形式,让考生将正确选项拖到相应位置,或对正确的归类进行勾选。
  出题形式:
  归纳题的问题有时候是以特殊疑问词开头的特殊疑问句, 有时候是一个陈述句, 例如:
  Which____ is associated with each____?
  Based on the information in the talk, indicate whether each phrase below describes ______or _____.
  Match ___ with the correct description.
  According to the professor, classify the following ____.
  解题技巧:
  在做IBT听力归纳题的时候, 要把握演讲中地专有名词,定义或短语。 同时要把握演讲中同级,评级或相似概念,以及演讲人所列举的事例。在听力段落播放过程中对谈话出现的事物和现象可在笔记中适当进行及时归纳。例如:
  Narrator: Based on the information in the lecture, indicate whether each characteristic below describe Continental, Mountain, or Modified Marine climate type.
  Continental
  Mountain
  Modified Marine
  Also classified and named “sub-tropical”
  Cooler temperatures, lower relative humidity and less dense air
  Large variations in the magnitude of ranges of daily temperature extremes
  Caused by the predominant onshore flow of tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico
  X解析:
  
  1. 在做听力的时候可以充分利用猜,即猜测,预见能力。当然这里指的不是听不懂而猜测,而是“听上文而知下文”的预测。在猜测的时候要多多注意场景, 托福考察在北美学习生活的语言交际能力,场景无非教师,图书馆,实验室,操场等,人物无非同学,教授,管理员,助教等;其实这些场景数量有限,重复率极高,所以经过多多积累, 可以轻松驾驭.
 2. 在记笔记的时候要学会如何边听边记,有选择地记,以及在短时间内记录重要地关键词,关键句,如何提高记录地效率,在做归纳题的时候这方面也是要多多注意的.
  3. 在做此类题型的时候要多注意词汇方面, 由于托福听力段落种涉及的词汇非常有限,很少出现生僻难懂的怪词,偏词,偶尔出现则大半是必考内容,通过谈话人的再三解释也不一定能得到满意的回答。所以在做此类题的时候只要精心复习核心词汇,可以驾驭该题型.
  4. 抓住关键词, 如术语,谈话人重点突出的名词,名字,数字,日期以及其他认为重要的内容。抓住总结性句子,听力段落之主题或结论。谈话人列举的人或事物之特性,特征等等.
  总之在做IBT听力归纳题的时候, 一定要理顺思路, 即条分缕析,分门别类,归纳信息。对听力段落进行适时整理。不必写出整句,也可不考虑时态,单复数等细枝末节,单重点词和关键姓名,数字,日期等信息点应尽量罗列出来。通常可以按谈话人的自然讲话顺序来进行组织排列。把握住以上的技巧, 相信可以轻松攻克IBT听力归纳题.
再然后是习语题~~
习语题是考察对当代英语口语,尤其是北美流行习语掌握程度的题型。习语题是托福听力中常考的一种题型,因为习语题主要出现在日常口语种,不论是平时非正式的对话,还是较为严肃的场合,如课堂和会议,习语的出现都是屡见不鲜的。一般来说,在新托福听力考试种,总会有1至2个习语题出现。
  出题形式:
  习语题通常都是以what 开头的特殊疑问句, 一般来说问的比较直接, 例如:
  What does the professor mean when he says this?
  A: Henry James was one of the critics who had very few comments on Whitman.
  B: Henry James was one of the critics who thought Whitman’s works lacked sweetness.
  C; Henry James was one of the critics who firmly believed Whitman was good.
  D: Henry James was among those who criticized Whitman’s works intensely.
  What does the professor mean by saying___?
  What does X refer to?
  剖析习语:
  在做习语题的时候经常会碰到一些难题。其难题之一就是当几个熟悉的单词在一起构成短语时,其短语的整体意思与单词本身的意思则大相径庭,这便是习语的难点所在。每一种语言都有它独特的习语。一般说来,有些习惯用语从字面上看不出它们的确切意思,这是因为考生不可能从组成某个习语的字面上来懂得它的意思。另外还有些习语在不同场合却表达不同的意思,它们在词典上的解释是相同的,但是却有不同的用法。所以在解这类题目的时候是需要积累一些这方面的素材的. 例如:
  “in the pink” 是表示"身体很健康;精力充沛"的常用语。 当一段材料中说:He is in the pink,那你就知道他肯定感到身体很好。E.g. Our next door neighbor came back from the hospital yesterday after his heart attack. And I'm glad to say he certainly looks in the pink again. 我们的隔壁邻居心脏病发作进了医院,昨天他出院回家了。他看起来确实和以往一样健康,我很高兴。 从这样的一个题目中我们就不难推出问题的答案了.
  “sandwich generation” sandwich就是"三明治", generation就是"一代人"。所以,sandwich generation就是"既要赡养老人,又要抚养下一代的人"。他们和夹在三明治当中的肉一样夹在老一代和下一代之中。E.g. Older people tend to retire earlier and live longer these days. And if they don't have pensions big enough to live on, this means their children in the sandwich generation have to bear the financial burden longer. 老年人现在都比较早地退休了,他们的寿命也比以往长。如果他们的退休金不够维持生活的话,这就意味着他们的孩子既要抚养老人,又要抚养他们自己的孩子,他们的经济负担时间也就更长。实际上这句词语可以从字面上猜出其含义, 捅破这层窗户纸, 答案不难得出了.
  “under the weather”的意思是"我不太舒服",与天气没有关系。例如: Mr. Jones, this is Sally Smith. I'm sorry, but I can't come to work today - I'm feeling a little under the weather. 琼斯先生,我是萨莉?史密斯。对不起,今天我有点儿不舒服,所以不能去上班了。under the weather是有小毛病的时候最普遍的用法。所以在听力材料中听到这个短语的时候就可以大概猜到问题了, 一定是关于健康方面的.
  解题技巧:
  谈到习语, 没有太多的捷径, 只有熟练掌握常用美国习语,正确理解其惯用语境合场合才能事半功倍. 千万不要从词语的字面意思来揣摩词义,事实上,习语往往与该词的字面意思相差千里;再解答该类题型时,可以遵循这样一种逻辑:见到什么,不选什么。例如, 再课堂演讲结束之前,教授通常会总结一下所论述的观点。教授说:To wrap up… 大家知道,wrap字面上作“包装,包裹”之意,但与up结合,即成了“总结”之意。在答案中遇到“包装,包裹”的字眼,完全可以不予理会。例如:
  (一)
  Professor: I have chosen to limit this study to the reactions of Whitman’s admirers for the simple reason that the opinions of his detractors have remained static. Early critics, like later ones, violently objected to Whitman’s technique and subject matter. Among them was Henry James, whose criticism was nothing short of bitterness.
  Narrator: Listen again to part of the lecture. Then answer the question.
  Professor: Among them was Henry James, whose criticism was nothing short of bitterness.
  What does the professor mean when he says this?
  A: Henry James was one of the critics who had very few comments on Whitman.
  B: Henry James was one of the critics who thought Whitman’s works lacked sweetness.
  C; Henry James was one of the critics who firmly believed Whitman was good.
  D: Henry James was among those who criticized Whitman’s works intensely.
  解析:
  Nothing short of 是 “一点儿也不少,非常” 之意.
  答案A,B将该习语强行分割开, 如将nothing 对应few, 将short of 对应lack. 因此A,B 予以排除.
  答案C正好将词义本末倒置,也予以排除. 答案为D.
  因此正确答案为D.
  (二)
  What does big shot refer to?
  A:Do you know Mr. Smith?
  B:No, but I know of him. He’s a big shot in the local politics.
  A:I’m told he’s only a yes-man.
  B:Yes, I hate that. At present, what we want is a strong, independent leader, not a bunch of yes-man.
  解析:
  1. 通过上下文所谈论的可以知道是在谈关于领导人的话题, 材料大意:
  甲:你认识史密斯先生吗?
  乙:不认识,但我知道这人,他在本地政界是个举足轻重的人物。
  甲:我听说他是个和事佬。
  乙:没错儿,我就恨这个。现在,我们要的是强有力的、有主见的领导人,可不是和事佬儿。
  2. 从上下文的推断中,可以了解到big short 是指地位高有实力的这么一个人, 可以理解为”要人” 因此可以得到问题的答案了.
  总之在做习语题的时候一定要多多积累,根据材料的上下文去推断.不要解释习语的字面意思, 脱离语境,制造混乱, 不准确或不完整的解释。
嗯,差不多了,我要先休息一下了~~诸位有好的分享阿~~

===================15==================
[ZT]托考热点之金融危机
今年金融危机,恐怕日子不好过吧~就业看样子很难地说~~我身边的好多同学都打算出国呢,汇率降低,出国以后就不那么苦了~~但是最近看报纸,说是金融危机导致企业向学校的赞助减少,奖学金也就减少了呢~~真是成也金融危机,败也金融危机呀!~~~
找了点和金融危机相关的东东~~写作中可能会用得到~~
The threat of impending financial disaster concentrates political minds wonderfully. On Thursday a group of Congressional leaders heard Hank Paulson, the Treasury secretary, and Ben Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, paint a dire economic scenario if they did not approve a more sweeping remedy for the financial crisis. Student and car loans, not just mortgages, would all be harder to get. The economy would sink into a severe recession.
     
迫在眉睫的金融灾难引起了相当多的政治关注。上周四,一群国会领袖听了财长保尔森和美联储主席伯南克所描述的,当国会不通过这项全面拯救金融危机的方案,经济上将会出现的可怕场面。那时,不仅仅是抵押贷款,甚至连助学贷款和买车贷款可能都很难获得。经济将陷入严重的衰退。
    For this reason, ad hoc responses will still be critical, such last week’s federal guarantees for money-market funds, Fed loans to banks to purchase asset-backed commercial paper and, on Sunday, approval of the remaining two big independent investment banks, Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs, to become Fed-regulated bank holding companies whose investment bank units can now borrow from the Fed on the same terms as other banks.
基于这样的原因,特别的拯救措施仍然非常关键,上周对货币市场的联邦担保,通过美联储购买资产抵押的商业票据对银行的贷款,以及在周日允许剩下的两家大型投行——摩根斯坦利和高盛变为美联储监管银行控股公司,使其投行部分现在也可以向其它银行一样向美联储借钱。
It could be some time before the Treasury is able to purchase mortgages en masse, and longer still before that starts to affect the broader financial system and economy. In the meantime, the crisis could claim other victims.
财政部完成购买所有的抵押贷款可能还需一段时间,而此举对整个金融系统和经济发挥作用则更需时日。其间,金融危机的危害可能会波及更多的机构。

有用的单词和句子:
The financial crisis金融危机
A break in the clouds黑云裂日,曙光显现
But questions abound over a $700 billion rescue plan for Wall Street
有关7000亿美元华尔街拯救计划的问题仍然不少。

Mr Paulson’s plan is stunning in its brevity (two-and-a-half pages) and audacity.
保尔森计划的简洁(只有两页半纸)和大胆令人惊讶不已。
经济危机(Economic Crisis)指的是一个或多个国民经济或整个世界经济在一段比较长的时间内不断收缩(负的经济增长率)。是资本主义经济发展过程中周期爆发的生产过剩的危机 。是经济周期中的决定性阶段。自1825年英国第一次爆发普遍的经济危机以来,资本主义经济从未摆脱过经济危机的冲击。 经济危机是资本主义体制的必然结果。由于资本主义的特性,其爆发也是存在一定的规律。
The term financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial institutions or assets suddenly lose a large part of their value. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many financial crises were associated with banking panics, and many recessions coincided with these panics. Other situations that are often called financial crises include stock market crashes and the bursting of other financial bubbles, currency crises, and sovereign defaults.
Many economists have offered theories about how financial crises develop and how they could be prevented. There is little consensus, however, and financial crises are still a regular occurrence around the world.
Types of financial crises
When a bank suffers a sudden rush of withdrawals by depositors, this is called a bank run. Since banks lend out most of the cash they receive in deposits , it is difficult for them to quickly pay back all deposits if these are suddenly demanded, so a run may leave the bank in bankruptcy, causing many depositors to lose their savings unless they are covered by deposit insurance. A situation in which bank runs are widespread is called a systemic banking crisis or just a banking panic. A situation without widespread bank runs, but in which banks are reluctant to lend, because they worry that they have insufficient funds available, is often called a credit crunch.
Examples of bank runs include the run on the Bank of the United States in 1931 and the run on Northern Rock in 2007. The collapse of Bear Stearns in 2008 has also sometimes been called a bank run, even though Bear Stearns was an investment bank rather than a commercial bank. The U.S. savings and loan crisis of the 1980s led to a credit crunch which is seen as a major factor in the U.S. recession of 1990-1991.
Speculative bubbles and crashes
Economists say that a financial asset (stock, for example) exhibits a bubble when its price exceeds the present value of the future income (such as interest or dividends that would be received by owning it to maturity.If most market participants buy the asset primarily in hopes of selling it later at a higher price, instead of buying it for the income it will generate, this could be evidence that a bubble is present. If there is a bubble, there is also a risk of a crash in asset prices: market participants will go on buying only as long as they expect others to buy, and when many decide to sell the price will fall. However, it is difficult to tell in practice whether an asset's price actually equals its fundamental value, so it is hard to detect bubbles reliably. Some economists insist that bubbles never or almost never occur.
Well-known examples of bubbles (or purported bubbles) and crashes in stock prices and other asset prices include the Dutch tulip mania, the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the Japanese property bubble of the 1980s, the crash of the dot-com bubble in 2000-2001, and the now-deflating United States housing bubble.(参考太傻论坛)














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